Infiniti Logo


Infiniti Logo
Infiniti Logo Infiniti is the luxury vehicle division of Japanese automaker Nissan. Infiniti officially started selling vehicles on November 8, 1989 in North America. The marketing network for Infiniti-branded vehicles now includes dealers in over 50 countries.

The Infiniti marque is not used in Japan. However, the Infiniti Q50 is sold as a Nissan Skyline in Japan and retains Infiniti badging, though without the Infiniti brand or name. Also, the original Q45 was sold as the Nissan Infiniti Q45 in Japan from November 1989 until 1996.

Most Infiniti models have direct equivalents in the Japanese domestic market Nissan lineup. Examples include the Infiniti G as the Nissan Skyline sedan and coupe and previously the Nissan Primera, Infiniti M as the Nissan Fuga and previously the Nissan Leopard, Infiniti EX as the Nissan Skyline crossover, and the Infiniti Q45 as the Nissan Cima. The Infiniti FX has no Nissan equivalent and is not sold in Japan.

In 2012, Infiniti moved its global headquarters from the Nissan corporate building in Yokohama and incorporated in Hong Kong as Infiniti Global Limited, with Carlos Ghosn intending for Infiniti to have a greater focus on the burgeoning luxury market in mainland China as it forecast the country to become the largest luxury car market.Johan de Nysschen was appointed to head the Infiniti division in 2012.De Nysschen left the company as of August 2014 to become CEO of Cadillac. Infiniti Chairman Andy Palmer assumed de Nysschen's responsibilities.Nissan appointed Roland Krüger, former head of BMW's Asian division, as president of Infiniti after the chairman of the marque, Andy Palmer, resigned to join Aston Martin in September 2014.

In mid-2013 Infiniti announced their Q30 Concept car would get its world premiere at the 2013 Frankfurt Motor Show, a move which will see Infiniti start an aggressive strategy to extend the Infiniti brand into new premium segments.In 2013, Infiniti's model designation will change to the coupes and sedans starting with the letter Q (SUVs and crossovers will start with the letters QX) and a number reflecting the model's place in the brand lineup. For instance, the M sedan will become the Q70 while the G sedan will be replaced with the Q50; meanwhile, the QX56 will become the QX80 while the EX will become the QX50.

With its QX60 crossover (formerly known as JX35) Infiniti began to produce vehicle outside Japan.In 2014, it is expected to start producing two models in Xiangyang, China, a plant operated by Nissan's joint venture with Dongfeng Motor.It is also expanding in Sunderland, England, to produce a new compact car named Q30 in 2015.

Models

Infiniti's former model name designation included one letter for coupés and sedans (two letters for SUVs) and a number reflecting engine displacement. For example, the QX56 was an SUV featuring a 5.6 L engine. An exception to this was the QX4 SUV, which featured a 3.3 L engine (1997–2000) and later a 3.5 L engine (2001–2003). An "x" following the engine displacement of Infiniti sedans denoted an all wheel drive model (e.g. Infiniti G35x), "s" denoted a sport package, "h" denoted a hybrid model, "d" denoted a diesel model (e.g. M30d) and a "t" for a Touring model (older models only).

In 2013, Infiniti's model designation changed to the coupes and sedans starting with the letter Q, the SUVs and crossovers starting with the letters QX, and a number reflecting the model's place in the brand lineup. For instance, the M sedan became the Q70 while the G sedan was replaced with the Q50; meanwhile, the QX56 became the QX80 while the EX became the QX50.

Source : wikipedia

Valmet Logo


Valmet Logo
Valmet Logo Valmet Automotive is a service provider for the automotive industry. The company offers services in automotive engineering, vehicle manufacturing, convertible roof systems and related consulting services.

Valmet Automotive’s focus areas of expertise are premium cars, convertibles and electric vehicles. The company has over 4,000 employees in Finland, Germany, Poland and Spain. The headquarters are located in Uusikaupunki, Finland. The majority of the company is owned by Pontos Group and Finnish government-owned holding company Tesi. A minority shareholder is the market-leading EV battery manufacturer CATL.

In manufacturing, Valmet Automotive’s customer references include Mercedes-Benz, Porsche, Saab, Opel and Fisker.Valmet Automotive has had electric vehicles in series production from 2009 until 2011 and again since 2017.

In 2012 Marussia Motors and Valmet Automotive announced an engineering and manufacturing agreement on B2 sports cars.

In July 2012, Daimler AG and Valmet Automotive announced a manufacturing agreement for over 100,000 Mercedes-Benz A-Class vehicles at the Uusikaupunki, Finland, plant. Production began in August 2013. A contract for the production of Mercedes-Benz GLC SUV was announced in November 2015. Manufacturing preparations involved plant restructuring worth tens of millions of euros and the hiring of around 2000 more personnel. The GLC production started in February 2017.In March 2017, Valmet Automotive announced the manufacturing contract with Daimler AG for the next generation Mercedes-Benz compact cars 

In engineering, Valmet Automotive offers components and complete vehicle projects. The focus areas are electric mobility solutions and manufacturing engineering.

The roof systems business line’s customer references include Mercedes-Benz, BMW, Mini, Renault and Bentley. The manufacturing plants are located in Osnabrück, Germany, and Zary, Poland.

History

Saab-Valmet was established in 1968 as a joint venture of Finnish Valmet and Swedish Saab-Scania. The automotive plant was placed in Uusikaupunki, Finland. In 1992 Valmet became the sole owner, and the company was renamed Valmet Automotive in 1995. From 1999 to 2010, the sole owner was Metso, after which Finnish Industry Investment and Pontos Investments bought 34% of the company's shares.[10] On November 4, 2010 Valmet Automotive bought Karmann´s roof-component sections in Osnabrück, Germany and Zary, Poland.The acquisition made Valmet Automotive one of the three biggest roof system manufacturers in the world. In January 2017, CATL became a 22 % minority stakeholder in the company, the other shareholders being Pontos and Tesi (Finnish Industry Investment). Soon thereafter, in March 2017, Valmet Automotive concluded the acquisition of Semcon's automotive engineering services in Germany and Spain, increasing the number of VA engineers to over 1000.

Source : wikipedia

Vauxhall Logo


Vauxhall Logo
Vauxhall Logo Vauxhall Motors is one of the oldest established vehicle manufacturers and distribution companies in Great Britain and has its headquarters in Luton, Bedfordshire, England. It is a subsidiary of the German company Adam Opel AG which is due to become part of PSA Peugeot-Citroën. Until the sale, agreed to in March 2017, takes place, both are wholly owned subsidiaries of General Motors (GM).

In March 2017 GM agreed to sell its interests in Vauxhall and Opel to the French automotive giant PSA Peugeot-Citroën (which manufactures vehicles under the Peugeot, Citroën and DS brands), ending a 90-year association with the company. Vauxhall sells passenger cars and light commercial vehicles under the Vauxhall marque; in the past it has also sold buses and trucks under the Bedford brand. Vauxhall has been the second-largest-selling car brand in the UK for more than two decades. 

Vauxhall was founded by Alexander Wilson in 1857 as a pump and marine engine manufacturer. It was bought in 1863 by Andrew Betts Brown who began producing travelling cranes. It was he who named it Vauxhall Iron Works.It began manufacturing cars in 1903. It was acquired by GM in 1925.Bedford Vehicles was established as a subsidiary of Vauxhall in 1930 to manufacture commercial vehicles. Having previously been a luxury car brand, after the Second World War Vauxhall became increasingly mass-market. Since 1980, Vauxhall products have been largely identical to those of Opel, GM's former German subsidiary, and most models are principally engineered in Rüsselsheim, Germany.During the 1980s the Vauxhall brand was withdrawn from sale in all countries apart from the UK, the Channel Islands, and the Isle of Man. At various times during its history, Vauxhall has been active in motorsports, including rallying and the British Touring Car Championship.

Vauxhall has major manufacturing facilities in Luton (commercial vehicles, IBC Vehicles) and Ellesmere Port, UK (passenger cars). The Luton plant currently employs around 900 staff and has a capacity of approximately 100,000 units.The Ellesmere Port plant currently employs around 1,880 staff and has a capacity of approximately 187,000 units.A high proportion of Vauxhall-branded vehicles sold in the UK are produced at Opel factories in Germany, Spain and Poland, and roughly 80% of Vauxhall production is exported, most of which is sold under the Opel brand.

Notable former Vauxhall production cars include the Viva, Victor, Chevette and Cavalier. The current Vauxhall car range includes the Adam (city car), Viva (city car), Astra (small family car), Cascada (convertible), Corsa (supermini), Insignia (large family car), Crossland X (subcompact crossover SUV), Mokka (subcompact SUV) and Zafira Tourer (large MPV). Vauxhall sells high-performance versions of some of its models under the VXR sub-brand.

In April 2017 Vauxhall was called reckless by a "Select Committee" of British MPs as it allowed customers to continue driving vehicles after a fire risk was identified.

Logo

The griffin emblem, which is still in use, is derived from the coat of arms of Falkes de Breauté, a mercenary soldier who was granted the Manor of Luton for services to King John in the thirteenth century. By marriage, he also gained the rights to an area near London, south of the Thames. The house he built, Fulk's Hall, became known in time as Vauxhall. Vauxhall Iron Works adopted this emblem from the coat of arms to emphasise its links to the local area. When Vauxhall Iron Works moved to Luton in 1905, the griffin emblem coincidentally returned to its ancestral home.

The logo as pictured used to be square, but it is now circular, to enable it to fit in the same recess designed for the circular Opel emblem. Since the 1920s, the griffin has been redesigned and released nine times. 2008 saw the release of a revised version of the 2005 logo. Bill Parfitt, Chairman and Managing Director of GM UK, said, "While the new-look Griffin pays homage to our 100 year-plus manufacturing heritage in the UK, it also encapsulates Vauxhall's fresh design philosophy, first showcased in the current Astra, and set to continue with Insignia."

Source : wikipedia

Venturi Logo


Venturi Logo
Venturi Logo Venturi Automobiles is a French-founded Monegasque-based multinational automotive manufacturer that designs, manufactures, and sells luxury electric vehicles. Founded in 1984 by engineers Claude Poiraud and Gérard Godfroy as MVS (Manufacture de Voitures de Sport), the company's purpose was to compete in the "Grand Tourisme" market. This was only the most recent post-war attempt at building a sporty luxury car in France, following in the footsteps of Facel Vega, Monica, and Ligier.As with its predecessors, Venturi was immediately faced with many challenges ranging from an unknown name to its under-capitalized and under-staffed state. Venturi did nonetheless manage to continue in production for nearly sixteen years, declaring bankruptcy in 2000 In 2001, Monegasque Gildo Pallanca Pastor purchased Venturi, and decided to focus on electric-powered engines. This change of direction led to the limited-production Fétish.

In December 2009, Venturi announced its acquisition of French motorcycle manufacturer Voxan. The acquisition would effectively allow Venturi to enter the motorcycle market. In August 2011, Venturi announced the creation of Venturi North America, based in Columbus, Ohio. Venturi North America was primarily created as a research and development center, and as such, maintains a close working relationship with the Center for Automotive Research.

History

The first Venturi came out in 1984, created by Claude Poiraud and Gérard Godfroy, two former engineers at Heuliez. The goal was to present the only "Grand Tourisme" French car capable of competing with the English Aston Martin, the Italian Ferrari, and the German Porsche. The first car shown had a Volkswagen Golf GTi engine and the name was originally spelled "Ventury", with a "y" at the end. In 1985, the car was shown with a 200 PS (147 kW) Peugeot 505 Turbo engine, but by the 1986 Paris Motor Show it had reached its definitive form with the PRV V6 engine. Production began in 1987, with five cars built in the first year. The headquarters of the company were located in Couëron, Pays de Loire, where almost 750 cars were produced in 20 years.

From 1987 to the mid-1990s, they built mid-engined coupés and roadsters with turbocharged PRV engines and Renault gearboxes. Engine power ranged from 160 to 260 PS (118 to 191 kW) for the MVS Venturi Coupé and Transcup series.

A limited-edition 400 GTR was built for racing homologation requirements and later used in the 24 Hours of Le Mans. Venturi was also briefly involved with the Larrousse Formula One team. The team's 1992 car, which bore the Venturi name, was designed and built by Venturi Larousse UK, a British company formerly known as Fomet 1, which had previously designed the 1991 Fondmetal Formula One cars.The 400 GT remains one of the best performing French cars ever produced, and it is in fact the very first car in the world to have standard carbon brakes.True to that claim, the Atlantique 400 GT with a 408 PS (300 kW; 402 hp) V6 3.0 24v DOHC twin-turbo delivered excellent performance to put it on par with Ferraris of the early 90s. The 400 GT could hit 100 km/h (62 mph) in 4.7 seconds and 291 km/h (181 mph) top speed, while the Atlantique 300 biturbo with a 314 PS (231 kW) V6 did 4.9 seconds to 100 km/h (62 mph) and went all the way to 171 mph (275 km/h).

High-level competition has also brought fame to the brand. Stéphane Ratel, who would later found the FIA GT Championship, was at the origin of the Venturi Gentlemen Drivers Trophy, which gathered an impressive array of 75 drivers. Venturi has also won fame through its brilliant performances in the 24 Hours of Le Mans, particularly in 1993 with Christophe Dechavanne and Jacques Laffite on Venturi Jaccadi team, and in 1995 with Paul Belmondo racing on the 600 SLM.

However, it is in the BPR Global GT Series races that Venturi established its pedigree defeating Porsche and Ferrari on several occasions. In 1994 in Dijon-Prenois, with Ferté and Neugarten on the 600 LM Jaccadi, at the 1000 km of Paris with Henri Pescarolo and Jean-Claude Basso on the 600 LM, and finally at the 4 Hours Spa race, once again with Michel Ferté and Michel Neugarten.

Source : wikipedia

Hummer Logo


Hummer Logo
Hummer Logo Hummer was a brand of trucks and SUVs, first marketed in 1992 when AM General began selling a civilian version of the M998 Humvee. In 1998, General Motors (GM) purchased the brand name and marketed three vehicles: the original Hummer H1, based on the military Humvee, as well as the H2 and H3 models that were based on smaller, civilian-market GM platforms.

By 2008, Hummer's viability in the economic downturn was being questioned, and it was placed under review by GM management. Rather than being transferred to the Motors Liquidation Company as part of the GM bankruptcy in 2009, the brand was retained by GM, in order to investigate its sale.

In 2009, a Chinese manufacturer, Sichuan Tengzhong Heavy Industrial Machinery Company, announced that it would acquire Hummer, pending government approvals, but later withdrew its bid.On February 24, 2010, Reuters reported that the Chinese ministry of commerce had prevented the deal,although a ministry spokesperson denied rejecting the application, which had been stalled for eight months.At the end of February, General Motors announced it would begin dismantling the Hummer brand.

Although the automaker announced two days later that it had been approached with new offers,by April 2010, any sale became unlikely, as inventory was depleted and Hummer dealerships began shutting down.After filling a rental-car fleet order, the last Hummer H3 rolled off the line at Shreveport on May 24, 2010.

The original maker of Hummer, AM General, lost their bid to build the HMMWV's replacement for the U.S. military in 2015.

Models

Hummer H1

The first vehicle in the Hummer range was the Hummer H1, based on the Humvee. Originally released in 1992, this vehicle was designed by American Motors' AM General subsidiary for the U.S. Military. Five years previously, AMC had been bought by Chrysler.

Hummer H2

The Hummer H2 was the second vehicle in the Hummer range. There were two variations: The H2 SUV and H2 SUT.

Hummer H3

The H3 and H3T truck were the smallest of the Hummer models and were based on the GMT355 platform shared with the Chevrolet Colorado and GMC Canyon compact pickup trucks.

Concept vehicles

Plug-in hybrid

Raser Technologies (formerly of Utah)was to use technology similar to that in the Chevrolet Volt. The company unveiled the prototype to the 2009 Society of Automotive Engineers World Congress in Detroit.The E-REV (Extended-Range Electric Vehicle) powertrain technology, was claimed to power the vehicle for up to 40 miles (64 km) on its battery, and then a small 4-cylinder internal combustion engine would start to generate more electricity.

Racing

Team Hummer Racing was created in 1993. Led by off-road racer Rod Hall, Team Hummer competed in the stock classes of both BitD and SCORE, with specialized racing shock absorbers, tires, and other modifications, along with mandatory safety equipment. Team Hummer stock-class H3 driven by Hall finished first in class with the H3 in the 2005 Baja 1000. Team Hummer earned 11 production-class wins at the Baja 1000.

A highly modified, two-wheel drive Hummer was raced by Robby Gordon in the 2006 (did not finish), 2007 (8th place), 2009 (3rd place), 2010 (8th place), 2011 (did not finish), 2012 (disqualified), and 2013 (14th place) Dakar Rally.

Source : wikipedia


Volvo Logo


Volvo Logo
Volvo Logo The Volvo Group is a Swedish multinational manufacturing company headquartered in Gothenburg. While its core activity is the production, distribution and sale of trucks, buses and construction equipment, Volvo also supplies marine and industrial drive systems and financial services. Although the two firms are still often conflated, Volvo Cars, also based in Gothenburg, is owned by Geely Holding Group, a Chinese multinational automotive manufacturing company, and has been a totally separate company since it was sold to the Ford Motor Company in 1999. The companies still share the Volvo logo and co-operate in running the Volvo Museum.

Volvo was established in 1915 as a subsidiary of SKF, the ball bearing manufacturer; however the Volvo Group and Volvo Cars consider themselves to have been officially founded on 14 April 1927, when the first car, the Volvo ÖV 4 series, affectionately known as "Jakob", rolled out of the factory in Hisingen, Gothenburg.The building remains (57°42′50″N 11°55′19″E).

Volvo means "I roll" in Latin, conjugated from "volvere", in reference to ball bearings. The brand name Volvo was originally registered as a trademark in May 1911 with the intention to be used for a new series of SKF ball bearings. This idea was only used for a short period and SKF decided to simply use "SKF" as the trademark for all its bearing products.

In 1924, Assar Gabrielsson, an SKF sales manager, and a KTH Royal Institute of Technology educated engineer Gustav Larson, the two founders, decided to start construction of a Swedish car. Their vision was to build cars that could withstand the rigors of the country's rough roads and cold temperatures.

AB Volvo began activities on 10 August 1926. After one year of preparations involving the production of ten prototypes the firm was ready to commence the car-manufacturing business within the SKF group. AB Volvo was introduced at the Stockholm Stock Exchange in 1935 and SKF then decided to sell its shares in the company. Volvo was delisted from NASDAQ in June 2007, but remains listed on the Stockholm Stock Exchange.

Trademark

Volvo Trademark Holding AB is equally owned by AB Volvo and Volvo Car Corporation.

The main activity of the company is to own, maintain, protect and preserve the Volvo trademarks (including Volvo, the Volvo device marks (grille slash & iron mark) Volvo Aero and Volvo Penta) on behalf of its owners and to license these rights to its owners. The day-to-day work is focused upon maintaining the global portfolio of trademark registrations and to extend sufficiently the scope of the registered protection for the Volvo trademarks.

The main business is also to act against unauthorised registration and use (including counterfeiting) of trademarks identical or similar to the Volvo trademarks on a global basis.

Brands
  • Eicher
  • Mack Trucks
  • Nova Bus
  • Prevost
  • Renault Trucks
  • SDLG 
  • UD Trucks
  • Volvo Construction Equipment
  • Volvo Financial Services
  • Volvo Penta
  • Volvo Trucks
Source : wikipedia

Wiesmann Logo


Wiesmann Logo
Wiesmann Logo Wiesmann GmbH was a German automobile manufacturer that specialized in hand-built custom convertibles. The company, which had its factory in Dülmen, was founded by brothers, engineer Martin Wiesmann and businessman Friedhelm Wiesmann, in 1988. The business was liquidated in May 2014.

History

The company's first roadster left the workshop in 1993. By 2006, they were producing the Wiesmann MF 3 and MF 30 roadsters and the Wiesmann GT MF 4 coupé, all of which utilized engine and transmission components supplied by BMW. The company, which made around 180 hand-built cars each year, used a gecko logo because they claimed their cars "stick to the road like geckos to a wall"

Weismann planned to begin exporting vehicles to the USA by 2010, however, factors including a poor exchange rates and the high costs of modifying and testing cars in order to make them road-legal in the US stymied these plans.On August 14, 2013 Wiesmann filed for insolvency at the local court in Münster.Four months later Weismann's management board filed to dismiss the insolvency proceedings due to abolition of the insolvency reasons while the creditors’ meeting was also postponed.Following unsuccessful talks with CMMW, a UK-based consortium that was interested in taking over Wiesmann and resuming production, the company was permanently closed a month later in May 2014.

models

MF 30

Wiesmann MF30 is the first Wiesmann model ever built.

The MF 30 is powered by a six-cylinder M54B30 engine borrowed from BMW, with a capacity of 2979 cm3 and a power output of 170 kW/231 hp (232 PS) at 5,900 rpm, reaching 300 N·m (221 ft·lbf) of torque at 3,400 rpm. Due to its dry weight of 1080 kg, the car can accelerate from 0 to 60 mph in 5.9 s with a top speed of 230 km/h (143 mph).

The model was discontinued in order to give way to the new slightly modified model named MF 3.

MF 3

The primary difference between the MF 3 and the MF 30 was the new engine. The engine featured on the MF 3 was a BMW S54, which is originally known from the M3 (E46). The engine has a displacement of 3246 cc with a maximum power output of 252 kW (343 PS / 343 hp) at 7900 rpm, and a maximum torque of 365 N·m (269 ft·lbf) at 4900 rpm. With the new engine and due to its weight of 1,180 kg (2,601 lb), this car can accelerate from 0–60 mph in 5.0 sec and reaching a maximum speed of 255 km/h (158 mph). MF3 came with a 5-speed manual transmission as basic, and a 6-speed sequential gearbox as an option.

Another additional option were the 20-inch rims running on (front: 235/30/20, rear: 285/25/20) rubber.

Source : wikipedia

Honda Logo


Honda Logo
Honda Logo Honda Motor Co., Ltd.is a Japanese public multinational conglomerate corporation primarily known as a manufacturer of automobiles, aircraft, motorcycles, and power equipment.

Honda has been the world's largest motorcycle manufacturer since 1959,as well as the world's largest manufacturer of internal combustion engines measured by volume, producing more than 14 million internal combustion engines each year.Honda became the second-largest Japanese automobile manufacturer in 2001. Honda was the eighth largest automobile manufacturer in the world behind Toyota, Volkswagen Group, Hyundai Motor Group, General Motors, Ford, Nissan, and FIAT in 2015.

Honda was the first Japanese automobile manufacturer to release a dedicated luxury brand, Acura, in 1986. Aside from their core automobile and motorcycle businesses, Honda also manufactures garden equipment, marine engines, personal watercraft and power generators, and other products. Since 1986, Honda has been involved with artificial intelligence/robotics research and released their ASIMO robot in 2000. They have also ventured into aerospace with the establishment of GE Honda Aero Engines in 2004 and the Honda HA-420 HondaJet, which began production in 2012. Honda has three joint-ventures in China (Honda China, Dongfeng Honda, and Guangqi Honda).

In 2013, Honda invested about 5.7% (US$6.8 billion) of its revenues in research and development.Also in 2013, Honda became the first Japanese automaker to be a net exporter from the United States, exporting 108,705 Honda and Acura models, while importing only 88,357.

Electric and alternative fuel vehicles

The Honda Civic GX was for a long time the only purpose-built natural gas vehicle (NGV) commercially available in some parts of the U.S.The Honda Civic GX first appeared in 1998 as a factory-modified Civic LX that had been designed to run exclusively on compressed natural gas. The car looks and drives just like a contemporary Honda Civic LX, but does not run on gasoline. In 2001, the Civic GX was rated the cleanest-burning internal combustion engine in the world by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA).

First leased to the City of Los Angeles, in 2005, Honda started offering the GX directly to the public through factory trained dealers certified to service the GX. Before that, only fleets were eligible to purchase a new Civic GX. In 2006, the Civic GX was released in New York, making it the second state where the consumer is able to buy the car.

In June 2015, Honda announced its decision to phase out the commercialization of natural-gas powered vehicles to focus on the development of a new generation of electrified vehicles such as hybrids, plug-in electric cars and hydrogen-powered fuel cell vehicles. Since 2008, Honda has sold about 16,000 natural-gas vehicles, mainly to taxi and commercial fleets.

Flexible-fuel

Honda's Brazilian subsidiary launched flexible-fuel versions for the Honda Civic and Honda Fit in late 2006. As other Brazilian flex-fuel vehicles, these models run on any blend of hydrous ethanol (E100) and E20-E25 gasoline.Initially, and in order to test the market preferences, the carmaker decided to produce a limited share of the vehicles with flex-fuel engines, 33 percent of the Civic production and 28 percent of the Fit models.Also, the sale price for the flex-fuel version was higher than the respective gasoline versions, around US$1,000 premium for the Civic, and US$650 for the Fit, despite the fact that all other flex-fuel vehicles sold in Brazil had the same tag price as their gasoline versions.In July 2009, Honda launched in the Brazilian market its third flexible-fuel car, the Honda City.

During the last two months of 2006, both flex-fuel models sold 2,427 cars against 8,546 gasoline-powered automobiles,jumping to 41,990 flex-fuel cars in 2007,and reaching 93,361 in 2008.Due to the success of the flex versions, by early 2009 a hundred percent of Honda's automobile production for the Brazilian market is now flexible-fuel, and only a small percentage of gasoline version is produced in Brazil for exports.

In March 2009, Honda launched in the Brazilian market the first flex-fuel motorcycle in the world. Produced by its Brazilian subsidiary Moto Honda da Amazônia, the CG 150 Titan Mix is sold for around US$2,700.

Hybrid electric

In late 1999, Honda launched the first commercial hybrid electric car sold in the U.S. market, the Honda Insight, just one month before the introduction of the Toyota Prius, and initially sold for US$20,000.The first-generation Insight was produced from 2000 to 2006 and had a fuel economy of 70 miles per US gallon (3.4 L/100 km; 84 mpg‑imp) for the EPA's highway rating, the most fuel-efficient mass-produced car at the time.Total global sales for the Insight amounted to only around 18,000 vehicles.Cumulative global sales reached 100,000 hybrids in 2005 and 200,000 in 2007.

Honda introduced the second-generation Insight in Japan in February 2009, and released it in other markets through 2009 and in the U.S. market in April 2009. At $19,800 as a five-door hatchback it will be the least expensive hybrid available in the U.S.

Since 2002, Honda has also been selling the Honda Civic Hybrid (2003 model) in the U.S. market.It was followed by the Honda Accord Hybrid, offered in model years 2005 through 2007. Sales of the Honda CR-Z began in Japan in February 2010, becoming Honda's third hybrid electric car in the market.As of February 2011, Honda was producing around 200,000 hybrids a year in Japan.

Sales of the Fit Hybrid began in Japan in October 2010, at the time, the lowest price for a gasoline-hybrid electric vehicle sold in the country.The European version, called Honda Jazz Hybrid, was released in early 2011.During 2011 Honda launched three hybrid models available only in Japan, the Fit Shuttle Hybrid, Freed Hybrid and Freed Spike Hybrid.

Honda's cumulative global hybrid sales passed the 1 million unit milestone at the end of September 2012, 12 years and 11 months after sales of the first generation Insight began in Japan November 1999.A total of 187,851 hybrids were sold worldwide in 2013, and 158,696 hybrids during the first six months of 2014. As of June 2014, Honda has sold more than 1.35 million hybrids worldwide.


Source : wikipedia

Holden Logo


Holden Logo
Holden Logo Holden, formally known as General Motors Holden, is an Australian automobile manufacturer with its headquarters in Port Melbourne, Victoria. The company was founded in 1856 as a saddlery manufacturer in South Australia. In 1908 it moved into the automotive field, before becoming a subsidiary of the United States-based General Motors (GM) in 1931. After becoming a subsidiary of GM, the company was named General Motors-Holden's Ltd, becoming Holden Ltd in 1998 and General Motors Holden in 2005. In 2017 October 20 it will cease manufacturing vehicles in Australia.

Holden sells the locally produced range of Commodore vehicles, supplemented by imported GM models. Holden has offered badge engineered models in sharing arrangements with Chevrolet, Isuzu, Nissan, Opel, Suzuki, Toyota and Vauxhall Motors. In 2013 the vehicle lineup consisted of models from GM Korea, GM Thailand, GM in the US, and self-developed Commodore, Caprice, and Ute. Holden also distributed the European Opel brand in Australia in 2012 until the Opel brand's Australian demise in mid-2013.

Since 1994, all Australian-built Holden vehicles were manufactured at Elizabeth, South Australia, and engines were produced at the Fishermans Bend plant in Melbourne. Historically, production or assembly plants were operated in all mainland states of Australia. General Motors New Zealand Limited operated assembly plants in New Zealand from 1926 until 1990. The consolidation of car production at Elizabeth was completed in 1988, but some assembly operations continued at Dandenong until 1994.

Although Holden's involvement in exports has fluctuated since the 1950s, the declining sales of large cars in Australia led the company to look to international markets to increase profitability. On 11 December 2013 Holden announced that it will cease vehicle and engine production by the end of 2017, however, the company will continue to have a large and ongoing presence in Australia importing and selling cars as national sales company.Holden will retain their design centre, but with reduced staffing.Since 2010 Holden has incurred losses due to the strong Australian dollar, and government grants have been reduced.In May 2014 GM reversed their decision to abandon the Lang Lang Proving Ground and decided to keep it as part of their engineering capability in Australia.

In 1852, James Alexander Holden emigrated to South Australia from Walsall,[6] England and in 1856 established J.A. Holden & Co, a saddlery business in Adelaide.In 1885, German-born H. A. Frost joined the business as a junior partner and J.A. Holden & Co became Holden & Frost Ltd.Edward Holden, James' grandson, joined the firm in 1905 with an interest in automobiles. From there, the firm evolved through various partnerships and, in 1908, Holden & Frost moved into the business of minor repairs to car upholstery.The company began to produce complete motorcycle sidecar bodies in 1913, and Edward experimented with fitting bodies to different types of carriages.After 1917, wartime trade restrictions led the company to start full-scale production of vehicle body shells. J.A. Holden founded a new company in 1919, Holden's Motor Body Builders Ltd (HMBB) specialising in car bodies and utilising a facility on King William Street in Adelaide.

By 1923, HMBB were producing 12,000 units per year.During this time, HMBB was the first company to assemble bodies for Ford Motor Company of Australia until its Geelong plant was completed.From 1924, HMBB became the exclusive supplier of car bodies for GM in Australia, with manufacturing taking place at the new Woosville plant.These bodies were made to suit a number of chassis imported from manufacturers such as Chevrolet and Dodge.[11] In 1926 General Motors (Australia) was established with assembly plants at Newstead, Queensland; Marrickville, New South Wales; City Road, Melbourne; Birkenhead, South Australia; and Cottesloe, Western Australia[16] utilising bodies produced by Holden Motor Body Builders and imported complete knock down (CKD) chassis.In 1930 alone, the still independent Woodville plant built bodies for Austin, Chrysler, DeSoto, Morris, Hillman, Humber, Hupmobile and Willys-Overland as well GM cars. The last of this line of business was the assembly of Hillman Minx sedans in 1948.The Great Depression led to a substantial downturn in production by Holden, from 34,000 units annually in 1930 to just 1,651 units one year later.In 1931 General Motors purchased Holden Motor Body Builders and merged it with General Motors (Australia) Pty Ltd to form General Motors-Holden's Ltd (GM-H).Throughout the 1920s Holden also supplied tramcars to Melbourne & Metropolitan Tramways Board. Several have been preserved in both Australia and New Zealand.

Zenvo Logo


Zenvo Logo
Zenvo Logo Zenvo or Zenvo Automotive is a Danish sports car company located near Viby on the Danish island of Zealand. It is managed by Jesper Jensen, the founder and financier, and Troels Vollertsen, the car performance expert. The brand is based on a combination of their names.Retrieved 18 December 2008.

History

Zenvo Automotive was founded in 2004. The prototype was completed in December 2008 and is in the final phase of testing before production begins in 2009.Zenvo to Produce “Real Supercar with Excessive Power”. Motor Trend December 17, 2008. The designation of the car is Zenvo ST1. Only 15 cars are to be built and will be sold to approved customers.Zenvo Automotive site. Retrieved 18 December 2008.

Characteristics

The Zenvo is a high performance sports car. While power is available through its supercharger and turbo, it will still be drivable for everyday use. Its 7-litre V8 engine will achieve 1,104 hp (823 kW) at 6,900 rpm and 1,430 N·m (1,050 lb·ft) of torque at 4,500 rpm. Indeed, according to The Motor Report, recent tests returned a 0-100 km/h time of 3.2 seconds, while 0-200 km/h took only 8.9 seconds.Zenvo ST1: Denmark’s Very Own Veyron? from The Motor Report, December 18, 2008.

Despite its power and large alloy wheels, the car is small, at just 15.3 ft (4.7 m) long, 6.7 ft (2.0 m) wide, and 3.9 ft (1.2 m) tall. It weighs just over 3,020 lb (1,370 kg) thanks to carbon fiber body panels.

Zenvo offers keyless entry, satellite navigation, power telescoping steering wheel, and leather electrically adjustable racing seats.Danish firm Zenvo Automotive unveils 1,100hp ST1 supercar. MotorAuthority, December 16, 2008.


Danish design

The Zenvo is entirely a result of Danish design. The carbon fibre body is made in Germany and many components such as gauges, gas tank, ABS brakes, anti-spinn, airbags and such come from US or German cars.Aftonbladet: 1104 hästar dansk dynamit The car's aggressive lines were designed by Christian Brandt and Jesper Hermann who own the car design consultancy hermann&brandt.Dansk superbil med 1.104 hk from bilbasen.dk. Retrieved 18 December 2008.Brandt, who was head of design on the project, has also worked for Alfa Romeo and Kleemann, an after-market tuning company for customising Mercedes-Benz cars located in Farum, Denmark.Mercedes Kleemann GTK Concept from DueMotori.com. Retrieved 19 December 2008.

Source : wikicars

Zagato Logo


Zagato Logo
Zagato Logo Zagato is an independent coachbuilding company and total design center located northwest of Milan in the Terrazzano frazione of Rho, Lombardy, Italy. The company's premises occupy an area of 23,000 square metres (250,000 sq ft), of which 11,000 square metres (120,000 sq ft) are covered.

Aeronautics

Ugo Zagato (he was born in Gavello, near Rovigo, on June 25, 1890) began his coachbuilding career in 1919 when he left Officine Aeronautiche Pomilio to set up his own business in Milan. This was: “the construction and repair of bodies for automobiles and airplanes”. He did so with the intent of transferring sophisticated constructional techniques that combined lightness with strength from the aeronautics to the automotive sector. Cars of the time were still bulky and heavy: Ugo Zagato conceived them as lightweight structures, with a frame in sheet aluminium similar to an aircraft fuselage. This change in direction came to represent a fundamental chapter in the history of taste and saw, in Europe, the adoption of the concept of functionalism applied to automotive design.

Racing cars

During the 20s Zagato concentrated on racing cars. In the beginning of the decade he was asked by Alfa Romeo to dress some Alfa Romeo RLs. But in 1925 Vittorio Jano, Alfa Romeo’s Chief Engineer, asked him to create a body for the Alfa 6C 1500, the Alfa Romeo P2’s heir, which should have been light and fast. Zagato, using his Aeronautics culture, succeeded in creating a sleek and light body for the car, which scored a 2nd place OA at the 1927 Mille Miglia and it won the 1928 edition. The 6C 1500 technical qualities were improved also on the Alfa Romeo 6C 1750, which was introduced in 1927. It was bodied in several versions (Turismo, Sport or Granturismo, Super Sport or Gran Sport) and achieved overall victories in the Mille Miglia in 1929 (Campari-Ramponi) and 1930 (Tazio Nuvolari, Achille Varzi, Giuseppe Campari and Pietro Ghersi filled the first four places). Enzo Ferrari started his career at Alfa Romeo in 1929 then founded Scuderia Ferrari as the official team for race Alfas. Also Bugatti, Maserati, Diatto, OM and even Rolls-Royce were clients of Zagato since the beginning.

Aerodynamic cars

Thirty-six these decades, Zagato continued building a variety of aerodynamic cars. He adopted inclined windscreens, more aerodynamic headlights, firstly enclosing them in aluminium hemispheres and then incorporating them within the bodywork, convex bootlids and perforated disc wheels that favoured brake cooling. Thirty-six Zagato bodied cars were at the start of 1938 Mille Miglia.


Panoramic Cars

At the outbreak of the Second World War, Ugo Zagato escaped from Milan and sought refugee at Lake Maggiore. On 13 August 1943 a RAF bombing raid destroyed his coachworks in Corso Sempione road. He found new premises at Saronno, alongside the Isotta Fraschini works, on behalf of which he constructed trucks and military vehicles and a futuristic Monterosa. He returned to Milan at the end of the war and re-established his company, close to the Alfa Romeo historic home at Portello. He searched for more spacious and more comfortable car greenhouses. They eventually crystallised in a new type-form characterised by airiness and visibility thanks to large glazed areas made with a new material, Plexiglas, in place of the traditional heavy glass. He called it “Panoramica” body, destined to mark the rebirth of his coachwork: Maserati, Lancia, Fiat and MG were “dressed” with this innovative body. In 1949 he built for Antonio Stagnoli a Panoramic body for his Ferrari 166 Mille Miglia (it was the first Ferrari coupé ever).

Gran Turismo Cars

As a gift for his graduation at Bocconi University of Milan, Elio Zagato, Ugo’s first-born son, received an open-top sports car based on a Fiat 500 B chassis in 1947. This car represented the beginning of his career as a gentleman driver (in a total of 160 races, Elio earned a place on the podium 83 times) and as a manager of the family company. The birth of the Gran Turismo category, conceived in 1949 by Count Giovanni Lurani, journalist Giovanni Canestrini and Elio himself revolutionised the world of automotive competition: the category comprised cars with sports coachwork and a production chassis or bodyshell of which at least 30 examples had to be built. They were, therefore, cars capable of being used on an everyday basis, comfortable and well-finished, yet sufficiently sleek and aerodynamic to race at weekends on the leading circuits. AC, Alfa Romeo, Abarth, Aston Martin, Bristol, Ferrari, Fiat, Maserati, Jaguar, Osca, wore Zagato GT bodies. In 1955 Elio Zagato scored a memorable victory of the International Granturism Championship at the Avus circuit driving a Fiat 8V Zagato.

Gumpert Logo


Gumpert Logo
Gumpert Logo The Gumpert Apollo is produced by German automaker Gumpert Sportwagenmanufaktur GmbH in Altenburg. Gumpert entered into Administration in August 2012, though production continues with the company attending the 2013 Geneva Motor Show.

History

In 2000 Roland Gumpert proposed a new generation sports car. One of the first concerns of this car was that it was a street-legal car which would be ready for the racetrack. He returned to Germany at the end of 2001, after more than three years in China where he was the head of sales and marketing, responsible for the development of the dealer network of the Audi-VW joint enterprise. Just after he returned to Germany, automobile designer Roland Mayer asked him if he would assist him in building a prototype supercar. Audi approved Gumpert's involvement in this project, on the condition that, if they did eventually develop a new supercar, it would not be a prototype, but a series product.

The company, located in Altenburg, Germany, was founded in 2004 under the name GMG Sportwagenmanufaktur Altenburg GmbH. The technical guidelines were defined and the first designs of the car were drawn by Marco Vanetta. Upon Vanetta's completion of this process, the first 1:4 scale model of Gumpert's car was produced in 2001.

Gumpert continued with the development of the Apollo, along with the Technical University of Munich and the Ingolstadt University of Applied Sciences. They have assisted with the constructional work, computer simulations, and wind tunnel tests. This research and development helped forming the blueprint for the first 1:1 scale model. Finally, two prototype Apollos were constructed.Production of the Apollo started in October 2005.

Design

The Apollo is a 1,100 kg (2,400 lb) to 1,200 kg (2,600 lb) (depending on options), street-legal race-car-like sports car. It is a mid-engined, rear wheel drive two-seater constructed on a tubular chromoly frame, with fiberglass or optional carbon fiber body panels. Gumpert claim the design of the Apollo is optimized so that the car could drive upside-down in a tunnel if driven at sufficiently high speeds (over 190 mph),but this has not been tested.

Engine

The Apollo uses a 4163 cc bi-turbo intercooled version of the Audi V8 engine.The 90° V8 has a closed-deck light metal crankcase with dry sump lubrication. The light metal cylinder heads have five valves per cylinder, four overhead camshafts, VarioCam Direct variable valve timing on the intakes, and hydraulic valve clearance compensation. The double-flow exhaust system has four oxygen sensors to monitor the gas mixture, and a 3-way catalytic converter. Modern controls include an on-board diagnostic system, eight-coil electronic ignition, sequential multipoint fuel injection, and an electronic (drive by wire) accelerator system.

There are 3 engine types available:

  • Base version - approximately 650 PS (478 kW; 641 bhp)
  • Sport version - approximately 700 PS (515 kW; 690 bhp)
  • Race version - approximately 800 PS (588 kW; 789 bhp)

Speed overview (650HP):
  • Top speed is 360.4 km/h (223.9 mph)
  • 0-100 km/h (62 mph) reached in 3.1 seconds
  • 0-200 km/h (120 mph) in 9.1 seconds.

Source : wikipedia

GM Logo


GM Logo
GM Logo General Motors Company commonly known as GM, is an American multinational corporation headquartered in Detroit, Michigan, that designs, manufactures, markets, and distributes vehicles and vehicle parts, and sells financial services. With global headquarters at the Renaissance Center in Detroit, Michigan, United States, GM manufactures cars and trucks in 35 countries. In 2008, 8.35 million GM cars and trucks were sold globally under various brands. 10 million cars sold milestone was exceeded on 2016.Current auto brands are Buick, Cadillac, Chevrolet, GMC, Holden, and Wuling. Former GM automotive brands include McLaughlin, Oakland, Oldsmobile, Pontiac, Hummer, Saab, Saturn, Vauxhall, and Opel.

The company was founded by William C. Durant on September 16, 1908 as a holding company. The company was the largest automobile manufacturer from 1931 through 2007.

In addition to brands selling assembled vehicles, GM has also had various automotive-component and non-automotive brands, many of which it divested in the 1980s through 2000s. These have included Euclid and Terex (earthmoving/construction/mining equipment & vehicles); Electro-Motive Diesel (locomotive, marine, and industrial diesel engines); Detroit Diesel (automotive and industrial diesel engines); Allison (Aircraft engines,transmissions, gas turbine engines); Frigidaire (Appliances including refrigeration and air conditioning); New Departure (bearings); Delco Electronics and ACDelco (electrical and electronic components); GMAC (finance); General Aviation and North American Aviation (airplanes); GM Defense (military vehicles); and Electronic Data Systems (information technology).

General Motors produces vehicles in 37 countries under twelve brands: Chevrolet, Buick, GMC, Cadillac, Holden, HSV, Opel, Vauxhall, Wuling, Baojun, Jie Fang, and Ravon.

The current company, General Motors Company LLC ("new GM"), was formed in 2009 following the bankruptcy of General Motors Corporation ("old GM"), which became Motors Liquidation Company. The new company purchased the majority of the assets of the old GM, including the brand "General Motors".

Hybrid electric vehicles

In May 2004, GM delivered the world's first full-sized hybrid pickups, the 1/2-ton Silverado/Sierra. These mild hybrids did not use electrical energy for propulsion, like GM's later designs. In 2005, the Opel Astra diesel Hybrid concept vehicle was introduced. The 2006 Saturn Vue Green Line was the first hybrid passenger vehicle from GM and is also a mild design. GM has hinted at new hybrid technologies to be employed that will be optimized for higher speeds in freeway driving.

GM currently offers the 2-mode hybrid system used by the Chevrolet Tahoe/GMC Yukon/Cadillac Escalade, and GM 1/2 half-ton pickups and will later be used on other vehicles.

Within the framework of its vehicle electrification strategy,[117] GM introduced the Chevrolet Volt in 2010, an electric vehicle with back-up generators powered by gasoline. The production Chevrolet Volt was available in late 2010 as a 2011 model with limited availability.GM delivered the first Volt during December 2010.

The GM Magic Bus is a hybrid-powered bus.

Source : wikipedia

GMC Logo


GMC Logo
GMC Logo GMC formally the GMC Division of General Motors LLC, is a division of the American automobile manufacturer General Motors (GM) that primarily focuses on trucks and utility vehicles. GMC sells pickup and commercial trucks, buses, vans, military vehicles, and sport utility vehicles marketed worldwide by General Motors.

History

General Motors was founded by William C. Durant on September 16, 1908, as a holding company for Buick.In 1909, GM purchased the Rapid Motor Vehicle Company of Pontiac, Michigan, forming the basis of the General Motors Truck Company, from which the "GMC Truck" brand name was derived. (Rapid was established on December 22, 1901, by Max Grabowsky. The company developed some of the earliest commercial trucks ever designed, and utilized one-cylinder engines.) The Reliance Motor Car Company (another independent manufacturer) was also purchased that same year by GM. Rapid and Reliance were merged in 1911, and in 1912 the marque "GMC Truck" first appeared on vehicles exhibited at the New York International Auto Show. Some 22,000 trucks were produced that year, though GMC's contribution to that total was a mere 372 units. GMC had some currency within GM referring to the corporate parent in general. Later "GMC" would become distinct as a division brand within the corporation, branding trucks and coaches; in contrast, the abbreviation for the overall corporation eventually ended up as "GM".

GMC maintained three manufacturing locations in Pontiac, Michigan, Oakland, California, and Saint Louis, Missouri.

In 1916, a GMC Truck crossed the country from Seattle to New York City in thirty days, and in 1926, a 2-ton GMC truck was driven from New York to San Francisco in five days and 30 minutes. During the Second World War, GMC Truck produced 600,000 trucks for use by the United States Armed Forces.

In 1925, GM purchased a controlling interest in Yellow Coach, a bus manufacturer based in Chicago, Illinois which was founded by John D. Hertz. After purchasing the remaining portion in 1943, GM renamed it GM Truck and Coach Division. The Division manufactured interurban coaches until 1980. Transit bus production ended in May 1987. The Canadian plant (in London, Ontario) produced buses from 1962 until July 1987. GM withdrew from the bus and coach market because of increased competition in the late 1970s and 1980s. Rights to the RTS model were sold to Transportation Manufacturing Corporation, while Motor Coach Industries of Canada purchased the Classic design. In 1998, GMC's official branding on vehicles was shortened from "GMC Truck" to simply "GMC".

In 2002, GMC released a book entitled, GMC: The First 100 Years, a complete history of the company.

GMC currently manufactures SUVs, pickup trucks, vans, light-duty trucks, and medium duty trucks. In the past, GMC also produced fire trucks, ambulances, heavy-duty trucks, military vehicles, motorhomes, and transit buses.

Source : wikipedia

Ford Logo


Ford Logo
Ford Logo The Ford Motor Company is an American multinational automaker headquartered in Dearborn, Michigan, a suburb of Detroit. It was founded by Henry Ford and incorporated on June 16, 1903. The company sells automobiles and commercial vehicles under the Ford brand and most luxury cars under the Lincoln brand. Ford also owns Brazilian SUV manufacturer, Troller, and Australian performance car manufacturer FPV. In the past, it has also produced tractors and automotive components. Ford owns an 8% stake in Aston Martin of the United Kingdom, and a 49% stake in Jiangling of China. It also has a number of joint-ventures, one in China (Changan Ford), one in Taiwan (Ford Lio Ho), one in Thailand (AutoAlliance Thailand), one in Turkey (Ford Otosan), and one in Russia (Ford Sollers). It is listed on the New York Stock Exchange and is controlled by the Ford family, although they have minority ownership (but majority of the voting power).

Ford introduced methods for large-scale manufacturing of cars and large-scale management of an industrial workforce using elaborately engineered manufacturing sequences typified by moving assembly lines; by 1914, these methods were known around the world as Fordism. Ford's former UK subsidiaries Jaguar and Land Rover, acquired in 1989 and 2000 respectively, were sold to Tata Motors in March 2008. Ford owned the Swedish automaker Volvo from 1999 to 2010.In 2011, Ford discontinued the Mercury brand, under which it had marketed entry-level luxury cars in the United States, Canada, Mexico, and the Middle East since 1938.

During the financial crisis at the beginning of the 21st century, it was close to bankruptcy, but it has since returned to profitability.

Ford is the second-largest U.S.-based automaker (preceded by General Motors) and the fifth-largest in the world (behind Toyota, VW, Hyundai-Kia and General Motors) based on 2015 vehicle production. At the end of 2010, Ford was the fifth largest automaker in Europe. Ford is the eighth-ranked overall American-based company in the 2010 Fortune 500 list, based on global revenues in 2009 of $118.3 billion.In 2008, Ford produced 5.532 million automobiles and employed about 213,000 employees at around 90 plants and facilities worldwide.

The company went public in 1956 but the Ford family, through special Class B shares, still retain 40 percent voting rights.

Automobiles

Ford Motor Company sells a broad range of automobiles under the Ford marque worldwide, and an additional range of luxury automobiles under the Lincoln marque in the United States. The company has sold vehicles under a number of other marques during its history. The Mercury brand was introduced by Ford in 1939, continuing in production until 2011 when poor sales led to its discontinuation.In 1958, Ford introduced the Edsel brand, but poor sales led to its discontinuation in 1960. In 1985, the Merkur brand was introduced in the United States to market products produced by Ford of Europe; it was discontinued in 1989.

Ford acquired the British sports car maker Aston Martin in 1989, later selling it on March 12, 2007, although retaining an 8% stake. Ford purchased Volvo Cars of Sweden in 1999,selling it to Zhejiang Geely Holding Group in 2010. In November 2008, it reduced its 33.4% controlling interest in Mazda of Japan to a 13.4% non-controlling interest.On November 18, 2010, Ford reduced their stake further to just 3%, citing the reduction of ownership would allow greater flexibility to pursue growth in emerging markets. Ford and Mazda remain strategic partners through exchanges of technological information and joint ventures, including an American joint venture plant in Flat Rock, Michigan called Auto Alliance.Ford sold the United Kingdom-based Jaguar and Land Rover companies and brands to Tata Motors of India in March 2008. In 2015, Ford sold its remaining 3% stake in Mazda.

Automotive components

Ford's FoMoCo parts division sells aftermarket parts under the Motorcraft brand name. It has spun off its parts division under the name Visteon.

Hybrid electric vehicles

In 2004, Ford and Toyota agreed a patent sharing accord which granted Ford access to certain hybrid technology patented by Toyota; in exchange, Ford licensed Toyota some of its own patents. In 2004, Ford introduced the Escape Hybrid. With this vehicle, Ford was third to the automotive market with a hybrid electric vehicle and the first hybrid electric SUV to market. This was also the first hybrid electric vehicle with a flexible fuel capability to run on E85.The Escape's platform mate Mercury Mariner was also available with the hybrid-electric system in the 2006 model year—a full year ahead of schedule. The similar Mazda Tribute will also receive a hybrid-electric powertrain option, along with many other vehicles in the Ford vehicle line.

In 2005, Ford announced a goal to make 250,000 hybrids a year by 2010, but by mid-2006 announced that it would not meet that goal, due to excessively high costs and the lack of sufficient supplies of the hybrid-electric batteries and drivetrain system components.Instead, Ford has committed to accelerating development of next-generation hybrid-electric power plants in Britain, in collaboration with Volvo. This engineering study is expected to yield more than 100 new hybrid-electric vehicle models and derivatives.

In September 2007, Ford announced a partnership with Southern California Edison (SCE) to examine how plug-in hybrids will work with the electrical grid. Under the multimillion-dollar, multi-year project, Ford will convert a demonstration fleet of Ford Escape Hybrids into plug-in hybrids, and SCE will evaluate how the vehicles might interact with the home and the utility's electrical grid. Some of the vehicles will be evaluated "in typical customer settings", according to Ford.

On June 12, 2008, USDOE expanded its own fleet of alternative fuel and advanced technology vehicles with the addition of a Ford Escape Plug-In Hybrid Flex-Fuel Vehicle. The vehicle is equipped with a 10-kilowatt (13 hp) lithium-ion battery supplied by Johnson Controls-Saft that stores enough electric energy to drive up to 30 miles (48 km) at speeds of up to 40 mph (64 km/h). In March 2009, Ford launched hybrid versions of the Ford Fusion Hybrid and the Mercury Milan Hybrid in the United States, both as 2010 models.

As of November 2014, Ford has produced for retail sales the following hybrid electric vehicles: Ford Escape Hybrid (2004–2012), Mercury Mariner Hybrid (2005–2010), Mercury Milan Hybrid (2009–2010), Ford Fusion Hybrid (2009–present), Lincoln MKZ Hybrid (2010–present), Ford C-Max Hybrid (2012–present), and Ford Mondeo Hybrid (2014–present). By June 2012, Ford had sold 200,000 full hybrids in the US since 2004,and, as of September 2014, the carmaker has sold over 344 thousand hybrids in the United States.The top selling hybrids in the U.S. market are the Fusion Hybrid with 127,572 units, followed by Escape Hybrid with 117,997 units, and the C-Max Hybrid with 54,236. As of November 2014, Ford is the world's second largest manufacturer of hybrids after Toyota Motor Corporation, with 400,000 hybrid electric vehicles produced since their introduction in 2004.


Source : wikipedia

Fisker Logo


Fisker Logo
Fisker Logo Fisker Automotive, now Fisker Inc was a firm which made the Fisker Karma, which was one of the world's first production plug-in hybrid electric vehicles. It debuted at the 2008 North American International Auto Show, and first deliveries were in 2011. Production of the Fisker Karma was suspended in November 2012 due to bankruptcy of its battery supplier A123 Systems,with about 2,450 Karmas built since 2011 and over 2000 cars sold worldwide.In February 2014, the company's designs, engineering and manufacturing facility were purchased by Chinese auto parts conglomerate Wanxiang Group. Henrik Fisker retained the Fisker trademarks and the Fisker brand and relaunched Fisker Inc, and so Wanxiang named its new company Karma Automotive.

Concept vehicles

Fisker Surf and Sunset

Fisker unveiled the Karma S hardtop convertible concept in 2009.

The Fisker Surf plug-in hybrid concept car was unveiled at the 2011 Frankfurt Motor Show. The Surf would have an all-electric range of 50 mi (80 km) and an additional 250 mi (400 km) when the gasoline engine is engaged, acting as a generator to charge the battery pack. Like the Karma, the Surf operates in Sport or energy-saving Stealth modes. In Sport, the car can reach 60 mph (97 km/h) from 0 in 5.9 seconds and the maximum speed is 125 mph (201 km/h). According to Henrik Fisker, the Surf would be part of the company’s lineup and would be available for North American and international delivery in 2013. Price was expected be in the same range as the Karma.In early 2012, the company announced they were dropping their plans to produce the Surf and the Sunset. Instead, they decided to proceed with production of the Fisker Atlantic.

Fisker Atlantic

In April 2012, Fisker unveiled their model Atlantic at the 2012 New York International Auto Show. The Fisker Atlantic, originally called "Project Nina",shares the range-extender system from the larger Karma, but uses a four-cylinder BMW-sourced gasoline engine, which acts as a generator to keep the batteries charged. The Atlantic is rear-wheel drive, with the option of four-wheel drive.The expected all-electric range is 30 mi (48 km).

The Atlantic was scheduled to become Fisker Automotive's second production car, after plans to produce the Fisker Surf and Sunset variants of its full-sized Karma were shelved earlier in 2012. Production was initially scheduled to begin by the end of 2012 at former GM plant in Wilmington, Delaware. By October 2012, the carmaker decided to postpone production for late 2014 or 2015 due to financial constraints.

Manufacturing

Fisker Automotive used to retain core competencies, such as design, engineering and marketing, in house, but outsourced manufacturing of its first vehicle Fisker Karma. Fisker's outsourcing methods allowed the company a 2–3 year period of development instead of the typical 5 years and at a cost of US$333 million instead of $1 billion,and claimed that it could make a profit from selling just 15,000 cars. Fisker used to save significant development costs by using pre-engineered components developed by other car companies whenever possible, such as the door handle mechanism which was a General Motors part; Fisker Automotive just paid a royalty to GM for each door handle in the Karma, which was much cheaper than designing its own door handles.However, the A123 battery failure and its resulting recall, and the eventual bankruptcy of the battery supplier,led to significant problems and added cost to the manufacture of the Karma model, finally resulting in Fisker's bankruptcy.

In 2008, Fisker estimated 15,000 cars per year would be assembled by Valmet Automotive in Uusikaupunki, Finland. Manufacturing eventually commenced in 2011 but by the third quarter of 2012 production ceased.

Source : wikipedia

Audi Logo


Audi Logo
Audi Logo Audi is a German automobile manufacturer that designs, engineers, produces, markets and distributes luxury vehicles. Audi is a member of the Volkswagen Group and has its roots at Ingolstadt, Bavaria, Germany. Audi-branded vehicles are produced in nine production facilities worldwide.

The origins of the company are complex, going back to the early 20th century and the initial enterprises (Horch and the Audiwerke) founded by engineer August Horch; and two other manufacturers (DKW and Wanderer), leading to the foundation of Auto Union in 1932. The modern era of Audi essentially began in the 1960s when Auto Union was acquired by Volkswagen from Daimler-Benz.After relaunching the Audi brand with the 1965 introduction of the Audi F103 series, Volkswagen merged Auto Union with NSU Motorenwerke in 1969, thus creating the present day form of the company.

The company name is based on the Latin translation of the surname of the founder, August Horch. "Horch", meaning "listen" in German, becomes "audi" in Latin. The four rings of the Audi logo each represent one of four car companies that banded together to create Audi's predecessor company, Auto Union. Audi's slogan is Vorsprung durch Technik, meaning "Advancement through Technology". However, Audi USA had used the slogan "Truth in Engineering" from 2007 to 2016, and didn't used slogan since 2016.Audi, along with BMW and Mercedes are among the best-selling luxury automobile brands in the world.

Bodyshells

Audi produces 100% galvanised cars to prevent corrosion,and was the first mass-market vehicle to do so, following introduction of the process by Porsche, c. 1975. Along with other precautionary measures, the full-body zinc coating has proved to be very effective in preventing rust. The body's resulting durability even surpassed Audi's own expectations, causing the manufacturer to extend its original 10-year warranty against corrosion perforation to currently 12 years (except for aluminium bodies which do not rust).

Layout

For most of its lineup (excluding the A3, A1, and TT models), Audi has not adopted the transverse engine layout which is typically found in economy cars (such as Peugeot and Citroën), since that would limit the type and power of engines that can be installed. To be able to mount powerful engines (such as a V8 engine in the Audi S4 and Audi RS4, as well as the W12 engine in the Audi A8L W12), Audi has usually engineered its more expensive cars with a longitudinally front-mounted engine, in an "overhung" position, over the front wheels in front of the axle line - this layout dates back to the DKW and Auto Union saloons from the 1950s. But while this allows for the easy adoption of all-wheel drive, it goes against the ideal 50:50 weight distribution.

In all its post Volkswagen-era models, Audi has firmly refused to adopt the traditional rear-wheel drive layout favored by its two archrivals Mercedes-Benz and BMW, favoring either front-wheel drive or all-wheel drive. The majority of Audi's lineup in the United States features all-wheel drive standard on most of its expensive vehicles (only the entry-level trims of the A4 and A6 are available with front-wheel drive), in contrast to Mercedes-Benz and BMW whose lineup treats all-wheel drive as an option. BMW did not offer all-wheel drive on its V8-powered cars (as opposed to crossover SUVs) until the 2010 BMW 7 Series and 2011 BMW 5 Series, while the Audi A8 has had all-wheel drive available/standard since the 1990s. Regarding high-performance variants, Audi S and RS models have always had all-wheel drive, unlike their direct rivals from BMW M and Mercedes-AMG whose cars are rear-wheel drive only (although their performance crossover SUVs are all-wheel drive).

Audi has recently applied the quattro badge to models such as the A3 and TT which do not use the Torsen-based system as in prior years with a mechanical center differential, but with the Haldex Traction electro-mechanical clutch AWD system.

Source : wikipedia

Fiat Logo


Fiat Logo
Fiat Logo Fiat Automobiles S.p.A. is the largest automobile manufacturer in Italy, a subsidiary of FCA Italy S.p.A., which is part of Fiat Chrysler Automobiles. Fiat Automobiles S.p.A. was formed in January 2007 when Fiat reorganized its automobile business,and traces its history back to 1899 when the first Fiat automobile was produced.

Electric vehicles

Fiat started development of electric vehicles back in the mid 1970s, with the concept Fiat X1/23. More recently in 2008, Fiat showed the Phylla concept,and the Fiat Bugster concept in Brazil.

Fiat joined utility companies Cemig and Itaipu to develop new electric vehicles for Brazil, with production in 2009 of the Palio Weekend Electric.

Fiat launched the electric 500e in California in 2013, but no sales were planned for Europe. Fiat CEO Sergio Marchionne claimed in 2014 that each one was sold at a loss of $14,000.

Logo

The FIAT initials were first used in the distinctive logo form 1901. Beginning in 1931, the company began using a single red shield with out a wreath. In 1968 the "rhomboid" logo (as it was known internally) was introduced which featured the FIAT initials spelled out on four interconnected rhombuses. The rhomboid was slowly phased in during the early 1970s, although the older "laurel wreath" style FIAT badge was used to denote sporting models such as the 124 Spider, 127 Sport, X1/9 and the tuned Abarth models. A new corporate nose based on the rhomboid logo was first introduced in 1983 on the Uno, which consisted of five chrome bars inclined at an angle of 18 degrees to mirror the rhomboid, which usually appeared in reduced size at the corner of the grille.

In 1999 the wreath style logo was re-introduced to commemorate the 100th anniversary of the company.

Source : wikipedia